package CGI::Session::Driver::file;

# $Id$

use strict;

use Carp;
use File::Spec;
use Fcntl qw( :DEFAULT :flock :mode );
use CGI::Session::Driver;
use vars qw( $FileName $NoFlock $UMask $NO_FOLLOW );

    # keep historical behavior

    no strict 'refs';
    *FileName = \$CGI::Session::File::FileName;

@CGI::Session::Driver::file::ISA        = ( "CGI::Session::Driver" );
$CGI::Session::Driver::file::VERSION    = '4.43';
$FileName                               = "cgisess_%s";
$NoFlock                                = 0;
$UMask                                  = 0660;
$NO_FOLLOW                              = eval { O_NOFOLLOW } || 0;

sub init {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->{Directory} ||= File::Spec->tmpdir();

    unless ( -d $self->{Directory} ) {
        require File::Path;
        unless ( File::Path::mkpath($self->{Directory}) ) {
            return $self->set_error( "init(): couldn't create directory path: $!" );
    $self->{NoFlock} = $NoFlock unless exists $self->{NoFlock};
    $self->{UMask} = $UMask unless exists $self->{UMask};
    return 1;

sub _file {
    my ($self,$sid) = @_;
    my $id = $sid;
    $id =~ s|\\|/|g;

	if ($id =~ m|/|)
        return $self->set_error( "_file(): Session ids cannot contain \\ or / chars: $sid" );

    return File::Spec->catfile($self->{Directory}, sprintf( $FileName, $sid ));

sub retrieve {
    my $self = shift;
    my ($sid) = @_;

    my $path = $self->_file($sid);
    return 0 unless -e $path;

    # make certain our filehandle goes away when we fall out of scope
    local *FH;

    if (-l $path) {
        unlink($path) or 
          return $self->set_error("retrieve(): '$path' appears to be a symlink and I couldn't remove it: $!");
        return 0; # we deleted this so we have no hope of getting back anything
    sysopen(FH, $path, O_RDONLY | $NO_FOLLOW ) || return $self->set_error( "retrieve(): couldn't open '$path': $!" );
    $self->{NoFlock} || flock(FH, LOCK_SH) or return $self->set_error( "retrieve(): couldn't lock '$path': $!" );

    my $rv = "";
    while ( <FH> ) {
        $rv .= $_;
    return $rv;

sub store {
    my $self = shift;
    my ($sid, $datastr) = @_;
    my $path = $self->_file($sid);
    # make certain our filehandle goes away when we fall out of scope
    local *FH;
    my $mode = O_WRONLY|$NO_FOLLOW;
    # kill symlinks when we spot them
    if (-l $path) {
        unlink($path) or 
          return $self->set_error("store(): '$path' appears to be a symlink and I couldn't remove it: $!");
    $mode = O_RDWR|O_CREAT|O_EXCL unless -e $path;
    sysopen(FH, $path, $mode, $self->{UMask}) or return $self->set_error( "store(): couldn't open '$path': $!" );
    # sanity check to make certain we're still ok
    if (-l $path) {
        return $self->set_error("store(): '$path' is a symlink, check for malicious processes");
    # prevent race condition (RT#17949)
    $self->{NoFlock} || flock(FH, LOCK_EX)  or return $self->set_error( "store(): couldn't lock '$path': $!" );
    truncate(FH, 0)  or return $self->set_error( "store(): couldn't truncate '$path': $!" );
    print FH $datastr;
    close(FH)               or return $self->set_error( "store(): couldn't close '$path': $!" );
    return 1;

sub remove {
    my $self  = shift;
    my ($sid) = @_;
    my $path  = $self -> _file($sid);
    unlink($path) or return $self->set_error( "remove(): couldn't unlink '$path': $!" );
    return 1;

sub traverse {
    my $self = shift;
    my ($coderef) = @_;

    unless ( $coderef && ref($coderef) && (ref $coderef eq 'CODE') ) {
        croak "traverse(): usage error";

    opendir( DIRHANDLE, $self->{Directory} ) 
        or return $self->set_error( "traverse(): couldn't open $self->{Directory}, " . $! );

    my $filename_pattern = $FileName;
    $filename_pattern =~ s/\./\\./g;
    $filename_pattern =~ s/\%s/(\.\+)/g;
    while ( my $filename = readdir(DIRHANDLE) ) {
        next if $filename =~ m/^\.\.?$/;
        my $full_path = File::Spec->catfile($self->{Directory}, $filename);
        my $mode = (stat($full_path))[2] 
            or return $self->set_error( "traverse(): stat failed for $full_path: " . $! );
        next if S_ISDIR($mode);
        if ( $filename =~ /^$filename_pattern$/ ) {
    closedir( DIRHANDLE );
    return 1;

    my $self = shift;




=head1 NAME

CGI::Session::Driver::file - Default CGI::Session driver


    $s = CGI::Session->new();
    $s = CGI::Session->new("driver:file", $sid);
    $s = CGI::Session->new("driver:file", $sid, {Directory=>'/tmp'});


When CGI::Session object is created without explicitly setting I<driver>, I<file> will be assumed.
I<file> - driver will store session data in plain files, where each session will be stored in a separate

Naming conventions of session files are defined by C<$CGI::Session::Driver::file::FileName> global variable. 
Default value of this variable is I<cgisess_%s>, where %s will be replaced with respective session ID. Should
you wish to set your own FileName template, do so before requesting for session object:

    use CGI::Session::Driver::file; # This line is mandatory.
    # Time passes...
    $CGI::Session::Driver::file::FileName = "%s.dat";
    $s = CGI::Session->new();

For backwards compatibility with 3.x, you can also use the variable name
C<$CGI::Session::File::FileName>, which will override the one above. 


If you wish to specify a session directory, use the B<Directory> option, which denotes location of the directory 
where session ids are to be kept. If B<Directory> is not set, defaults to whatever File::Spec->tmpdir() returns. 
So all the three lines in the SYNOPSIS section of this manual produce the same result on a UNIX machine.

If specified B<Directory> does not exist, all necessary directory hierarchy will be created.

By default, sessions are created with a umask of 0660. If you wish to change the umask for a session, pass
a B<UMask> option with an octal representation of the umask you would like for said session. 

=head1 NOTES

If your OS doesn't support flock, you should understand the risks of going without locking the session files. Since
sessions tend to be used in environments where race conditions may occur due to concurrent access of files by 
different processes, locking tends to be seen as a good and very necessary thing. If you still want to use this 
driver but don't want flock, set C<$CGI::Session::Driver::file::NoFlock> to 1 or pass C<< NoFlock => 1 >> and this 
driver will operate without locks.


For support and licensing see L<CGI::Session|CGI::Session>