package App::Cache;
use strict;
use warnings;
use File::Find::Rule;
use File::HomeDir;
use File::Path qw( mkpath );
use File::stat;
use HTTP::Cookies;
use LWP::UserAgent;
use Path::Class;
use Storable qw(nstore retrieve);
use base qw( Class::Accessor::Chained::Fast );
__PACKAGE__->mk_accessors(qw( application directory ttl enabled ));
our $VERSION = '0.37';

sub new {
    my $class = shift;
    my $self  = $class->SUPER::new(@_);

    unless ( $self->application ) {
        my $caller = (caller)[0];
        $self->application($caller);
    }

    unless ( $self->directory ) {
        my $dir = dir( home(), "." . $self->_clean( $self->application ),
            "cache" );
        $self->directory($dir);
    }
    my $dir = $self->directory;
    unless ( -d "$dir" ) {
        mkpath("$dir")
            || die "Error mkdiring " . $self->directory . ": $!";
    }

    unless ( defined $self->enabled ) {
        $self->enabled(1);
    }

    return $self;
}

sub clear {
    my $self = shift;
    foreach
        my $filename ( File::Find::Rule->new->file->in( $self->directory ) )
    {
        unlink($filename) || die "Error unlinking $filename: $!";
    }
    foreach my $dirname ( sort { length($b) <=> length($a) }
        File::Find::Rule->new->directory->in( $self->directory ) )
    {
        next if $dirname eq $self->directory;
        rmdir($dirname) || die "Error unlinking $dirname: $!";
    }
}

sub delete {
    my ( $self, $key ) = @_;
    my $filename = $self->_clean_filename($key);
    return unless -f $filename;
    unlink($filename) || die "Error unlinking $filename: $!";
}

sub get {
    my ( $self, $key ) = @_;
    return unless $self->enabled;
    my $ttl = $self->ttl || 60 * 30;               # default ttl of 30 minutes
    my $filename = $self->_clean_filename($key);
    return undef unless -f $filename;
    my $now   = time;
    my $stat  = stat($filename) || die "Error stating $filename: $!";
    my $ctime = $stat->ctime;
    my $age   = $now - $ctime;
    if ( $age < $ttl ) {
        my $value = retrieve("$filename")
            || die "Error reading from $filename: $!";
        return $value->{value};
    } else {
        $self->delete($key);
        return undef;
    }
}

sub get_code {
    my ( $self, $key, $code ) = @_;
    my $data = $self->get($key);
    unless ($data) {
        $data = $code->();
        $self->set( $key, $data );
    }
    return $data;
}

sub get_url {
    my ( $self, $url ) = @_;
    my $data = $self->get($url);
    unless ($data) {
        my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new;
        $ua->cookie_jar( HTTP::Cookies->new() );
        my $response = $ua->get($url);
        if ( $response->is_success ) {
            $data = $response->content;
        } else {
            die "Error fetching $url: " . $response->status_line;
        }
        $self->set( $url, $data );
    }
    return $data;
}

sub scratch {
    my $self      = shift;
    my $directory = $self->_clean_filename("_scratch");
    unless ( -d $directory ) {
        mkdir($directory) || die "Error mkdiring $directory: $!";
    }
    return $directory;
}

sub set {
    my ( $self, $key, $value ) = @_;
    return unless $self->enabled;
    my $filename = $self->_clean_filename($key);
    nstore( { value => $value }, "$filename" )
        || die "Error writing to $filename: $!";
}

sub _clean {
    my ( $self, $text ) = @_;
    $text = lc $text;
    $text =~ s/[^a-z0-9]+/_/g;
    return $text;
}

sub _clean_filename {
    my ( $self, $key ) = @_;
    $key = $self->_clean($key);
    my $filename = file( $self->directory, $key );
    return $filename;
}

1;

__END__

=head1 NAME

App::Cache - Easy application-level caching

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  # in your class:
  my $cache = App::Cache->new({ ttl => 60*60 });
  $cache->delete('test');
  my $data = $cache->get('test');
  my $code = $cache->get_code("code", sub { $self->calculate() });
  my $html = $cache->get_url("http://www.google.com/");
  $cache->set('test', 'one');
  $cache->set('test', { foo => 'bar' });
  my $scratch = $cache->scratch;
  $cache->clear;

=head1 DESCRIPTION

The L<App::Cache> module lets an application cache data locally. There
are a few times an application would need to cache data: when it is
retrieving information from the network or when it has to complete a
large calculation.

For example, the L<Parse::BACKPAN::Packages> module downloads a file off
the net and parses it, creating a data structure. Only then can it
actually provide any useful information for the programmer.
L<Parse::BACKPAN::Packages> uses L<App::Cache> to cache both the file
download and data structures, providing much faster use when the data is
cached.

This module stores data in the home directory of the user, in a dot
directory. For example, the L<Parse::BACKPAN::Packages> cache is
actually stored underneath "~/.parse_backpan_packages/cache/". This is
so that permisssions are not a problem - it is a per-user,
per-application cache.

=head1 METHODS

=head2 new

The constructor creates an L<App::Cache> object. It takes three optional
parameters:

=over

=item *

ttl contains the number of seconds in which a cache entry expires. The default
is 30 minutes.

  my $cache = App::Cache->new({ ttl => 30*60 });

=item *

application sets the application name. If you are calling new() from a class,
the application is automagically set to the calling class, so you should rarely
need to pass it in:

  my $cache = App::Cache->new({ application => 'Your::Module' });

=item *

directory sets the directory to be used for the cache. Normally this is just
set for you and will be based on the application name and be created in the
users home directory. Sometimes for testing, it can be useful to set this.

  my $cache = App::Cache->new({ directory => '/tmp/your/cache/dir' });

=item *

enabled can be set to 0 for testing, in which case you will always get
cache misses:

  my $cache = App::Cache->new({ enabled => 0 });

=back

=head2 clear

Clears the cache:

  $cache->clear;
  
=head2 delete

Deletes an entry in the cache:

  $cache->delete('test');
  
=head2 get

Gets an entry from the cache. Returns undef if the entry does not exist
or if it has expired:

  my $data = $cache->get('test');
  
=head2 get_code

This is a convenience method. Gets an entry from the cache, but if the
entry does not exist, set the entry to the value of the code reference
passed:

  my $code = $cache->get_code("code", sub { $self->calculate() });

=head2 get_url

This is a convenience method. Gets the content of a URL from the cache,
but if the entry does not exist, set the entry to the content of the URL
passed:

  my $html = $cache->get_url("http://www.google.com/");

=head2 scratch

Returns a directory in the cache that the application may use for
scratch files:

  my $scratch = $cache->scratch;

=head2 set

Set an entry in the cache. Note that an entry value may be an arbitrary
Perl data structure:

  $cache->set('test', 'one');
  $cache->set('test', { foo => 'bar' });

=head2 directory

Returns the full path to the cache directory. Primarily useful for when you
are writing tests that use App::Cache and want to clean up after yourself. If
you are doing that you may want to explicitly set the 'application' constructor
parameter to avoid later cleaning up a cache dir that was already in use.

  my $dir = $cache->directory;

=head1 AUTHOR

Leon Brocard <acme@astray.com>

=head1 COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2005-7, Leon Brocard

=head1 LICENSE

This module is free software; you can redistribute it or modify it under
the same terms as Perl itself.