package Apache2::AuthCookie;
$Apache2::AuthCookie::VERSION = '3.30';
# ABSTRACT: Perl Authentication and Authorization via cookies

use strict;

use Carp;
use base 'Apache2::AuthCookie::Base';
use Apache::AuthCookie::Util qw(is_blank);

sub authorize {
    my ($auth_type, $r) = @_;

    my $debug = $r->dir_config("AuthCookieDebug") || 0;

    $r->server->log_error('authorize() for '.$r->uri()) if $debug >= 3;

    return OK unless $r->is_initial_req; #only the first internal request

    if ($r->auth_type ne $auth_type) {
        $r->server->log_error("auth type mismatch $auth_type != ".$r->auth_type)
            if $debug >= 3;
        return DECLINED;

    my $reqs_arr = $auth_type->decoded_requires($r) or return DECLINED;

    my $user = $auth_type->decoded_user($r);

    $r->server->log_error("authorize user=$user type=$auth_type") if $debug >=3;

    if (is_blank($user)) {
        # the authentication failed
        $r->server->log_error("No user authenticated", $r->uri);
        return HTTP_FORBIDDEN;

    my $satisfy = $auth_type->get_satisfy($r);
    return SERVER_ERROR unless $auth_type->satisfy_is_valid($r,$satisfy);
    my $satisfy_all = $satisfy eq 'all';

    my ($forbidden);
    foreach my $req (@$reqs_arr) {
        my ($requirement, $args) = split /\s+/, $req->{requirement}, 2;
        $args = '' unless defined $args;
        $r->server->log_error("requirement := $requirement, $args") if $debug >= 2;

        if (lc($requirement) eq 'valid-user') {
            if ($satisfy_all) {
            else {
                return OK;

        if ($requirement eq 'user') {
            if ($args =~ m/\b$user\b/) {
                next if $satisfy_all;
                return OK; # satisfy any

            $forbidden = 1;

        # Call a custom method
        my $ret_val = $auth_type->$requirement($r, $args);
        $r->server->log_error("$auth_type->$requirement returned $ret_val") if $debug >= 3;
        if ($ret_val == OK) {
            next if $satisfy_all;
            return OK; # satisfy any

        # Nothing succeeded, deny access to this user.
        $forbidden = 1;

    return $forbidden ? HTTP_FORBIDDEN : OK;

sub get_satisfy {
    my ($auth_type, $r) = @_;

    my $auth_name = $r->auth_name;

    return lc $r->dir_config("${auth_name}Satisfy") || 'all';

sub satisfy_is_valid {
    my ($auth_type, $r, $satisfy) = @_;

    $satisfy = lc $satisfy;

    if ($satisfy eq 'any' or $satisfy eq 'all') {
        return 1;
    else {
        my $auth_name = $r->auth_name;
        $r->server->log_error("PerlSetVar ${auth_name}Satisfy $satisfy invalid",$r->uri);
        return 0;



=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

Apache2::AuthCookie - Perl Authentication and Authorization via cookies

=head1 VERSION

version 3.30


Make sure your mod_perl is at least 2.0.0-RC5, with StackedHandlers,
MethodHandlers, Authen, and Authz compiled in.

 # In httpd.conf or .htaccess:
 PerlModule Sample::Apache2::AuthCookieHandler
 PerlSetVar WhatEverPath /
 PerlSetVar WhatEverLoginScript /

 # use to alter how "require" directives are matched. Can be "Any" or "All".
 # If its "Any", then you must only match Any of the "require" directives. If
 # its "All", then you must match All of the require directives. 
 # Default: All
 PerlSetVar WhatEverSatisfy Any
 # The following line is optional - it allows you to set the domain
 # scope of your cookie.  Default is the current domain.
 PerlSetVar WhatEverDomain

 # Use this to only send over a secure connection
 PerlSetVar WhatEverSecure 1

 # Use this if you want user session cookies to expire if the user
 # doesn't request a auth-required or recognize_user page for some
 # time period.  If set, a new cookie (with updated expire time)
 # is set on every request.
 PerlSetVar WhatEverSessionTimeout +30m

 # to enable the HttpOnly cookie property, use HttpOnly.
 # This is an MS extension.  See:
 PerlSetVar WhatEverHttpOnly 1

 # to enable the SameSite cookie property, set SameSite to "lax" or "strict".
 # See:
 PerlSetVar WhatEverSameSite strict

 # Usually documents are uncached - turn off here
 PerlSetVar WhatEverCache 1

 # Use this to make your cookies persistent (+2 hours here)
 PerlSetVar WhatEverExpires +2h

 # Use to make AuthCookie send a P3P header with the cookie
 # see for details about what the value 
 # of this should be
 PerlSetVar WhatEverP3P "CP=\"...\""

 # optional: enable decoding of intercepted GET/POST params:
 PerlSetVar WhatEverEncoding UTF-8

 # optional: enable decoding of httpd.conf "Requires" directives
 PerlSetVar WhatEverRequiresEncoding UTF-8

 # optional: enforce that the destination argument from the login form is
 # local to the server
 PerlSetVar WhatEverEnforceLocalDestination 1

 # optional: specify a default destination for when the destination argument
 # of the login form is invalid or unspecified
 PerlSetVar WhatEverDefaultDestination /protected/user/

 # These documents require user to be logged in.
 <Location /protected>
  AuthType Sample::Apache2::AuthCookieHandler
  AuthName WhatEver
  PerlAuthenHandler Sample::Apache2::AuthCookieHandler->authenticate
  PerlAuthzHandler Sample::Apache2::AuthCookieHandler->authorize
  require valid-user

 # These documents don't require logging in, but allow it.
 <FilesMatch "\.ok$">
  AuthType Sample::Apache2::AuthCookieHandler
  AuthName WhatEver
  PerlFixupHandler Sample::Apache2::AuthCookieHandler->recognize_user

 # This is the action of the script above.
 <Files LOGIN>
  AuthType Sample::Apache2::AuthCookieHandler
  AuthName WhatEver
  SetHandler perl-script
  PerlResponseHandler Sample::Apache2::AuthCookieHandler->login


This module is for mod_perl version 2.  If you are running mod_perl version 1,
you should be using B<Apache::AuthCookie> instead.

B<Apache2::AuthCookie> allows you to intercept a user's first
unauthenticated access to a protected document. The user will be
presented with a custom form where they can enter authentication
credentials. The credentials are posted to the server where AuthCookie
verifies them and returns a session key.

The session key is returned to the user's browser as a cookie. As a
cookie, the browser will pass the session key on every subsequent
accesses. AuthCookie will verify the session key and re-authenticate
the user.

All you have to do is write a custom module that inherits from
AuthCookie.  Your module is a class which implements two methods:

=over 4

=item C<authen_cred()>

Verify the user-supplied credentials and return a session key.  The
session key can be any string - often you'll use some string
containing username, timeout info, and any other information you need
to determine access to documents, and append a one-way hash of those
values together with some secret key.

=item C<authen_ses_key()>

Verify the session key (previously generated by C<authen_cred()>,
possibly during a previous request) and return the user ID.  This user
ID will be fed to C<$r-E<gt>user()> to set Apache's idea of who's logged in.


By using AuthCookie versus Apache's built-in AuthBasic you can design
your own authentication system.  There are several benefits.

=over 4

=item 1.

The client doesn't *have* to pass the user credentials on every
subsequent access.  If you're using passwords, this means that the
password can be sent on the first request only, and subsequent
requests don't need to send this (potentially sensitive) information.
This is known as "ticket-based" authentication.

=item 2.

When you determine that the client should stop using the
credentials/session key, the server can tell the client to delete the
cookie.  Letting users "log out" is a notoriously impossible-to-solve
problem of AuthBasic.

=item 3.

AuthBasic dialog boxes are ugly.  You can design your own HTML login
forms when you use AuthCookie.

=item 4.

You can specify the domain of a cookie using PerlSetVar commands.  For
instance, if your AuthName is C<WhatEver>, you can put the command 

 PerlSetVar WhatEverDomain

into your server setup file and your access cookies will span all
hosts ending in C<>.

=item 5.

You can optionally specify the name of your cookie using the C<CookieName>
directive.  For instance, if your AuthName is C<WhatEver>, you can put the

 PerlSetVar WhatEverCookieName MyCustomName

into your server setup file and your cookies for this AuthCookie realm will be
named MyCustomName.  Default is AuthType_AuthName.

=item 6.

By default users must satisfy ALL of the C<require> directives.  If you
want authentication to succeed if ANY C<require> directives are met, use the
C<Satisfy> directive.  For instance, if your AuthName is C<WhatEver>, you can
put the command

 PerlSetVar WhatEverSatisfy Any

into your server startup file and authentication for this realm will succeed if
ANY of the C<require> directives are met.


This is the flow of the authentication handler, less the details of the
redirects. Two HTTP_MOVED_TEMPORARILY's are used to keep the client from
displaying the user's credentials in the Location field. They don't really
change AuthCookie's model, but they do add another round-trip request to the

 (-----------------------)     +---------------------------------+
 ( Request a protected   )     | AuthCookie sets custom error    |
 ( page, but user hasn't )---->| document and returns            |
 ( authenticated (no     )     | HTTP_FORBIDDEN. Apache abandons |      
 ( session key cookie)   )     | current request and creates sub |      
 (-----------------------)     | request for the error document. |<-+
                               | Error document is a script that |  |
                               | generates a form where the user |  |
                 return        | enters authentication           |  |
          ^------------------->| credentials (login & password). |  |
         / \      False        +---------------------------------+  |
        /   \                                   |                   |
       /     \                                  |                   |
      /       \                                 V                   |
     /         \               +---------------------------------+  |
    /   Pass    \              | User's client submits this form |  |
   /   user's    \             | to the LOGIN URL, which calls   |  |
   | credentials |<------------| AuthCookie->login().            |  |
   \     to      /             +---------------------------------+  |
    \authen_cred/                                                   |
     \ function/                                                    |
      \       /                                                     |
       \     /                                                      |
        \   /            +------------------------------------+     |
         \ /   return    | Authen cred returns a session      |  +--+
          V------------->| key which is opaque to AuthCookie.*|  |
                True     +------------------------------------+  |
                                              |                  |
               +--------------------+         |      +---------------+
               |                    |         |      | If we had a   |
               V                    |         V      | cookie, add   |
  +----------------------------+  r |         ^      | a Set-Cookie  |
  | If we didn't have a session|  e |T       / \     | header to     |
  | key cookie, add a          |  t |r      /   \    | override the  |
  | Set-Cookie header with this|  u |u     /     \   | invalid cookie|
  | session key. Client then   |  r |e    /       \  +---------------+
  | returns session key with   |  n |    /  pass   \               ^    
  | successive requests        |    |   /  session  \              |
  +----------------------------+    |  /   key to    \    return   |
               |                    +-| authen_ses_key|------------+
               V                       \             /     False
  +-----------------------------------+ \           /
  | Tell Apache to set Expires header,|  \         /
  | set user to user ID returned by   |   \       /
  | authen_ses_key, set authentication|    \     /
  | to our type (e.g. AuthCookie).    |     \   /
  +-----------------------------------+      \ /
         (---------------------)              ^
         ( Request a protected )              |
         ( page, user has a    )--------------+
         ( session key cookie  )

 *  The session key that the client gets can be anything you want.  For
    example, encrypted information about the user, a hash of the
    username and password (similar in function to Digest
    authentication), or the user name and password in plain text
    (similar in function to HTTP Basic authentication).

    The only requirement is that the authen_ses_key function that you
    create must be able to determine if this session_key is valid and
    map it back to the originally authenticated user ID.

=head1 METHODS

=head2 authorize(): int

This will step through the C<require> directives you've given for protected
documents and make sure the user passes muster.  The C<require valid-user> and
C<require user joey-jojo> directives are handled for you.  You can implement
custom directives, such as C<require species hamster>, by defining a method
called C<species()> in your subclass, which will then be called.  The method
will be called as C<$r-E<gt>species($r, $args)>, where C<$args> is everything
on your C<require> line after the word C<species>.  The method should return OK
on success and HTTP_FORBIDDEN on failure.

=head2 get_satisfy(): string

Get the value of C<${auth_name}Satisfy>, or C<all> if it is not set.

=head2 satisfy_is_valid(): bool

return true if the configured C<${auth_name}Satisfy> is valid, false otherwise.

=head2 authen_cred(): string

You must define this method yourself in your subclass of
C<Apache2::AuthCookie>.  Its job is to create the session key that will
be preserved in the user's cookie.  The arguments passed to it are:

 sub authen_cred ($$\@) {
   my $self = shift;  # Package name (same as AuthName directive)
   my $r    = shift;  # Apache request object
   my @cred = @_;     # Credentials from login form

   ...blah blah blah, create a session key...
   return $session_key;

The only limitation on the session key is that you should be able to
look at it later and determine the user's username.  You are
responsible for implementing your own session key format.  A typical
format is to make a string that contains the username, an expiration
time, whatever else you need, and an MD5 hash of all that data
together with a secret key.  The hash will ensure that the user
doesn't tamper with the session key.  More info in the Eagle book.

=head2 authen_ses_key($r, $session_key): string

You must define this method yourself in your subclass of
Apache2::AuthCookie.  Its job is to look at a session key and determine
whether it is valid.  If so, it returns the username of the
authenticated user.

 sub authen_ses_key ($$$) {
   my ($self, $r, $session_key) = @_;
   ...blah blah blah, check whether $session_key is valid...
   return $ok ? $username : undef;

Optionally, return an array of 2 or more items that will be passed to method
custom_errors. It is the responsibility of this method to return the correct
response to the main Apache module.

=head2 custom_errors($r,@_): int

Note: this interface is experimental.

This method handles the server response when you wish to access the Apache
custom_response method. Any suitable response can be used. this is
particularly useful when implementing 'by directory' access control using
the user authentication information. i.e.

                /one            user is allowed access here
                /two            not here
                /three          AND here

The authen_ses_key method would return a normal response when the user attempts
to access 'one' or 'three' but return (NOT_FOUND, 'File not found') if an
attempt was made to access subdirectory 'two'. Or, in the case of expired
credentials, (AUTH_REQUIRED,'Your session has timed out, you must login

  example 'custom_errors'

  sub custom_errors {
    my ($self,$r,$CODE,$msg) = @_;
    # return custom message else use the server's standard message
    $r->custom_response($CODE, $msg) if $msg;

  where CODE is a valid code from Apache2::Const


=head2 Encoding

AuthCookie provides support for decoding POST/GET data if you tell it what the
client encoding is.  You do this by setting the C<< ${auth_name}Encoding >>
setting in C<httpd.conf>.  E.g.:

 PerlSetVar WhateEverEncoding UTF-8
 # and you also need to arrange for charset=UTF-8 at the end of the
 # Content-Type header with something like:
 AddDefaultCharset UTF-8

Note that you B<can> use charsets other than C<UTF-8>, however, you need to
arrange for the browser to send the right encoding back to the server.

If you have turned on Encoding support by setting C<< ${auth_name}Encoding >>,
this has the following effects:

=over 4

=item *

The internal pure-perl params processing subclass will be used, even if
libapreq2 is installed.  libapreq2 does not have any support for encoding or

=item *

POST/GET data intercepted by AuthCookie will be decoded to perl's internal
format using L<Encode/decode>.

=item *

The value stored in C<< $r-E<gt>user >> will be encoded as B<bytes>, not
characters using the configured encoding name.  This is because the value
stored by mod_perl is a C API string, and not a perl string.  You can use
L<decoded_user()> to get user string encoded using B<character> semantics.


This does has some caveats:

=over 4

=item *

your L<authen_cred()> and L<authen_ses_key()> function is expected to return
a decoded username, either by passing it through L<Encode/decode()>, or, by
turning on the UTF8 flag if appropriate.

=item *

Due to the way HTTP works, cookies cannot contain non-ASCII characters.
Because of this, if you are including the username in your generated session
key, you will need to escape any non-ascii characters in the session key
returned by L<authen_cred()>.

=item *

Similarly, you must reverse this escaping process in L<authen_ses_key()> and
return a L<Encode/decode()> decoded username.  If your L<authen_cred()>
function already only generates ASCII-only session keys then you do not need to
worry about any of this.

=item *

The value stored in C<< $r-E<gt>user >> will be encoded using bytes semantics
using the configured B<Encoding>.  If you want the decoded user value, use
L<decoded_user()> instead.


=head2 Requires

You can also specify what the charset is of the Apache C<< $r-E<gt>requires >>
data is by setting C<< ${auth_name}RequiresEncoding >> in httpd.conf.


 PerlSetVar WhatEverRequiresEncoding UTF-8

This will make it so that AuthCookie will decode your C<requires> directives
using the configured character set.  You really only need to do this if you
have used non-ascii characters in any of your C<requires> directives in
httpd.conf.  e.g.:

 requires user programmør

=head1 EXAMPLE

For an example of how to use Apache2::AuthCookie, you may want to check
out the test suite, which runs AuthCookie through a few of its paces.
The documents are located in t/eg/, and you may want to peruse
t/real.t to see the generated httpd.conf file (at the bottom of
real.t) and check out what requests it's making of the server (at the
top of real.t).


You will need to create a login script (called above) that
generates an HTML form for the user to fill out.  You might generate
the page using a ModPerl::Registry script, a HTML::Mason component, an Apache
handler, or perhaps even using a static HTML page.  It's usually useful to
generate it dynamically so that you can define the 'destination' field
correctly (see below).

The following fields must be present in the form:

=over 4

=item 1.

The ACTION of the form must be /LOGIN (or whatever you defined in your
server configuration as handled by the ->login() method - see example
in the SYNOPSIS section).

=item 2.

The various user input fields (username, passwords, etc.) must be
named 'credential_0', 'credential_1', etc. on the form.  These will
get passed to your authen_cred() method.

=item 3.

You must define a form field called 'destination' that tells
AuthCookie where to redirect the request after successfully logging
in.  Typically this value is obtained from C<$r-E<gt>prev-E<gt>uri>.
See the script in t/eg/.


In addition, you might want your login page to be able to tell why
the user is being asked to log in.  In other words, if the user sent
bad credentials, then it might be useful to display an error message
saying that the given username or password are invalid.  Also, it
might be useful to determine the difference between a user that sent
an invalid auth cookie, and a user that sent no auth cookie at all.  To
cope with these situations, B<AuthCookie> will set
C<$r-E<gt>subprocess_env('AuthCookieReason')> to one of the following values.

=over 4

=item I<no_cookie>

The user presented no cookie at all.  Typically this means the user is
trying to log in for the first time.

=item I<bad_cookie>

The cookie the user presented is invalid.  Typically this means that the user
is not allowed access to the given page.

=item I<bad_credentials>

The user tried to log in, but the credentials that were passed are invalid.


You can examine this value in your login form by examining
C<$r-E<gt>prev-E<gt>subprocess_env('AuthCookieReason')> (because it's
a sub-request).

Of course, if you want to give more specific information about why
access failed when a cookie is present, your C<authen_ses_key()>
method can set arbitrary entries in C<$r-E<gt>subprocess_env>.


If you want to let users log themselves out (something that can't be
done using Basic Auth), you need to create a logout script.  For an example,
see t/htdocs/docs/  Logout scripts may want to take advantage of
AuthCookie's C<logout()> method, which will set the proper cookie headers in
order to clear the user's cookie.  This usually looks like

Note that if you don't necessarily trust your users, you can't count
on cookie deletion for logging out.  You'll have to expire some
server-side login information too.  AuthCookie doesn't do this for
you, you have to handle it yourself.


Unlike the sample AuthCookieHandler, you have you verify the user's
login and password in C<authen_cred()>, then you do something

    my $date = localtime;
    my $ses_key = MD5->hexhash(join(';', $date, $PID, $PAC));

save C<$ses_key> along with the user's login, and return C<$ses_key>.

Now C<authen_ses_key()> looks up the C<$ses_key> passed to it and
returns the saved login.  I use Oracle to store the session key and
retrieve it later, see the ToDo section below for some other ideas.

=head2 TO DO

=over 4

=item *

It might be nice if the logout method could accept some parameters
that could make it easy to redirect the user to another URI, or
whatever.  I'd have to think about the options needed before I
implement anything, though.


=head1 HISTORY

Originally written by Eric Bartley <>

versions 2.x were written by Ken Williams <>


Copyright (c) 2000 Ken Williams. All rights reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as Perl itself.

=head1 SEE ALSO


=head1 SOURCE

The development version is on github at L<https://>
and may be cloned from L<git://>

=head1 BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a
patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired

=head1 AUTHOR

Michael Schout <>


This software is copyright (c) 2000 by Ken Williams.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.



# vim: sw=4 ts=4 ai et