NAME

depak - Pack your dependencies onto your script file

VERSION

This document describes version 0.583 of depak (from Perl distribution App-depak), released on 2020-04-29.

SYNOPSIS

Basic usage:

 # outputs to stdout
 % depak yourscript.pl

 # specify output filename
 % depak yourscript.pl /tmp/yourscript.pl.packed

 # use datapack instead of the default fatpack
 % depak --pack-method datapack script script.packed

 # See debug messages:
 % depak --debug script >script.packed

Including and excluding modules:

 # add some more modules not detected by the tracer
 % depak -I Foo::Bar -I Foo::Baz script script.packed

 # change trace method, usually 'require' will give pretty complete result
 % depak -t require <script >script.packed

See more options:

 % depak --help

DESCRIPTION

depak*) is a CLI application to pack your dependencies (required pure-Perl modules) along with your Perl script into a single file. It will trace what modules your script requires using one of several available methods, and include them inside the script either using the fatpack or datapack technique. The result is a free-standing script which can run on vanilla/core Perl installation.

*) the name is a spelling variation of "dep-pack" (for "dependency pack"), and is also an Indonesian word.

OPTIONS

* marks required options.

Main options

--put-hook-at-the-end

Prefer modules from other sources (filesystem) first.

Normally, the `fatpack` or `datapack` require hook will be put at the front of `@INC`. If this option is set to true, the require hook will be put at the end. This means Perl will search modules from the regular sources (filesystem) first. This is useful for example if you want your application to use the possibly newer version of modules on the filesystem before using the packed version as the fallback when some modules are not installed.

Configuration options

--config-path=s, -c

Set path to configuration file.

--config-profile=s, -P

Set configuration profile to use.

--no-config, -C

Do not use any configuration file.

Debugging options

--debug-keep-tempdir

Keep temporary directory for debugging.

Environment options

--no-env

Do not read environment for default options.

Input options

--input-file=s, -i

Path to input file (script to be packed).

Default value:

 "-"

`-` (or if unspecified) means to take from standard input (internally, a temporary file will be created to handle this).

Logging options

--debug

Shortcut for --log-level=debug.

--log-level=s

Set log level.

--quiet

Shortcut for --log-level=error.

--trace

Shortcut for --log-level=trace.

--verbose

Shortcut for --log-level=info.

Module selection options

--allow-xs-json=s

See --allow-xs.

--allow-xs=s@

Allow adding a specified XS module.

Can be specified multiple times.

--exclude-dist-json=s

Exclude all modules of dist (JSON-encoded).

See --exclude-dist.

--exclude-dist=s@

Exclude all modules of dist.

Just like the `exclude` option, but will exclude module as well as other modules from the same distribution. Module name must be the main module of the distribution. Will determine other modules from the `.packlist` file.

Can be specified multiple times.

--exclude-list=s

Exclude modules from a list in a file.

--exclude-module-json=s, --exclude, -E

Modules to exclude (JSON-encoded).

See --exclude-module.

--exclude-module=s@

Exclude a module.

When you don't want to include a module, specify it here.

Can be specified multiple times.

--exclude-pattern-json=s, -p

Regex patterns of modules to exclude (JSON-encoded).

See --exclude-pattern.

--exclude-pattern=s@

Regex pattern of modules to exclude.

When you don't want to include a pattern of modules, specify it here.

Can be specified multiple times.

--exclude-prereq-json=s

See --exclude-prereq.

--exclude-prereq=s@

Allow script to depend on a module instead of packing it.

This option can be used to express that script will depend on a specified module, instead of including it packed. The prereq-ed module, as well as other modules in the same distribution, as well as its prereqs and so on recursively, will be excluded from packing as well.

This option can be used to express dependency to an XS module, since XS modules cannot be packed.

To query dependencies, a local CPAN index is used for querying speed. Thus, this option requires that `lcpan` is installed and a fairly recent lcpan index is available.

Can be specified multiple times.

--include-core

Do not exclude core modules.

--include-dir-json=s

Include extra modules under directories (JSON-encoded).

See --include-dir.

--include-dir=s@

Include extra modules under a directory.

Can be specified multiple times.

--include-dist-json=s

Include all modules of dist (JSON-encoded).

See --include-dist.

--include-dist=s@

Include all modules of dist.

Just like the `include` option, but will include module as well as other modules from the same distribution. Module name must be the main module of the distribution. Will determine other modules from the `.packlist` file.

Can be specified multiple times.

--include-list=s

Include extra modules from a list in a file.

--include-module-json=s, --include, -I

Include extra modules (JSON-encoded).

See --include-module.

--include-module=s@

Include an extra module.

When the tracing process fails to include a required module, you can add it here.

Can be specified multiple times.

--include-prereq-json=s

See --include-prereq.

--include-prereq=s@

Include module and its recursive dependencies for packing.

This option can be used to include a module, as well as other modules in the same distribution as that module, as well as the distribution's recursive dependencies, for packing. Dependencies will be searched using a local CPAN index. This is a convenient alternative to tracing a module. So you might want to use this option together with setting `trace_method` to `none`.

This option requires that `lcpan` is installed and a fairly recent lcpan index is available.

Can be specified multiple times.

--perl-version=s, -V

Perl version to target, defaults to current running version.

This is for determining which modules are considered core and should be skipped by default (when `exclude_core` option is enabled). Different perl versions have different sets of core modules as well as different versions of the modules.

--skip-not-found

Instead of dying, skip when module to add is not found.

This option is useful when you use `include_prereq`, because modules without its own .pm files will also be included (CPAN indexes packages, including those that do not have their own .pm files).

By default, this option is turned off unless when you use `include_prereq` where this option is by default turned on. You can of course override the default by explicitly specify this option.

--trace-extra-opts-json=s

Pass more options to `App::tracepm` (JSON-encoded).

See --trace-extra-opts.

--trace-extra-opts=s

Pass more options to `App::tracepm`.

--trace-method=s, -t

Which method to use to trace dependencies.

Default value:

 "fatpacker"

Valid values:

 ["fatpacker","require","prereqscanner","prereqscanner_lite","prereqscanner_recurse","prereqscanner_lite_recurse","none"]

The default is `fatpacker`, which is the same as what `fatpack trace` does. Different tracing methods have different pro's and con's, one method might detect required modules that another method does not, and vice versa. There are several methods available, please see `App::tracepm` for more details.

A special value of `none` is also provided. If this is selected, then depak will not perform any tracing. Usually used in conjunction with `--include-from`.

--use-json=s

Additional modules to "use" (JSON-encoded).

See --use.

--use=s@

Additional module to "use".

Will be passed to the tracer. Will currently only affect the `fatpacker` and `require` methods (because those methods actually run your script).

Can be specified multiple times.

Output options

--format=s

Choose output format, e.g. json, text.

Default value:

 undef
--json

Set output format to json.

--naked-res

When outputing as JSON, strip result envelope.

Default value:

 0

By default, when outputing as JSON, the full enveloped result is returned, e.g.:

    [200,"OK",[1,2,3],{"func.extra"=>4}]

The reason is so you can get the status (1st element), status message (2nd element) as well as result metadata/extra result (4th element) instead of just the result (3rd element). However, sometimes you want just the result, e.g. when you want to pipe the result for more post-processing. In this case you can use `--naked-res` so you just get:

    [1,2,3]
--output-file=s, -o

Path to output file.

Default value:

 "-"

`-` (or if unspecified) means to output to stdout.

--overwrite

Overwrite output if previously exists.

--page-result

Filter output through a pager.

--shebang=s

Set shebang line/path.

Default value:

 "/usr/bin/perl"

Packing options

--pack-method=s

Packing method to use.

Default value:

 "fatpack"

Valid values:

 ["fatpack","datapack"]

Either `fatpack` (the default) or `datapack`. Fatpack puts packed modules inside Perl variables and load them via require hook. Datapack puts packed modules in __DATA__ section. For more details about each method, please consult `Module::FatPack` and `Module::DataPack`.

One thing to remember is, with datapack, your script cannot load modules during compile-time (`use`): all modules must be loaded during run-time (`require`) when data section is already available. Also, your script currently cannot contain data section of its own.

Stripping options

--no-stripper-comment

Set strip_comment=0 (don't strip comments) in Perl::Stripper.

--no-stripper-pod

Set strip_pod=0 (don't strip POD) in Perl::Stripper.

--no-stripper-ws

Set strip_ws=0 (don't strip whitespace) in Perl::Stripper.

--squish

Squish included modules using Perl::Squish.

--strip

Strip included modules using Perl::Strip.

--stripper

Strip included modules using Perl::Stripper.

--stripper-log

Set strip_log=1 (strip log statements) in Perl::Stripper.

--stripper-maintain-linum

Set maintain_linum=1 in Perl::Stripper.

Testing options

--test, -T

Test the resulting output.

Testing is done by running the resulting packed script with perl. To test, at least one test case is required (see `--test-case-json`). Test cases specify what arguments to give to program, what exit code we expect, and what the output should contain.

--test-cases-json=s

See --test-cases.

--test-cases=s

Example case:

    {"args":["--help"], "exit_code":0, "perl_args":["-Mlib::core::only"], "output_like":"Usage:"}

Tracing options

--arg=s@

Script argument.

Will be used when running your script, e.g. when `trace_method` is `fatpacker` or `require`. For example, if your script requires three arguments: `--foo`, `2`, `"bar baz"` then you can either use:

    % depak script output --args --foo --args 2 --args "bar baz"

or:

    % depak script output --args-json '["--foo",2,"bar baz"]'

Can be specified multiple times.

--args-json=s

Script arguments (JSON-encoded).

See --arg.

--multiple-runs-json=s

Pass to tracepm (JSON-encoded).

See --multiple-runs.

--multiple-runs=s

Pass to tracepm.

--trace-method=s, -t

Which method to use to trace dependencies.

Default value:

 "fatpacker"

Valid values:

 ["fatpacker","require","prereqscanner","prereqscanner_lite","prereqscanner_recurse","prereqscanner_lite_recurse","none"]

The default is `fatpacker`, which is the same as what `fatpack trace` does. Different tracing methods have different pro's and con's, one method might detect required modules that another method does not, and vice versa. There are several methods available, please see `App::tracepm` for more details.

A special value of `none` is also provided. If this is selected, then depak will not perform any tracing. Usually used in conjunction with `--include-from`.

Other options

--help, -h, -?

Display help message and exit.

--version, -v

Display program's version and exit.

COMPLETION

This script has shell tab completion capability with support for several shells.

bash

To activate bash completion for this script, put:

 complete -C depak depak

in your bash startup (e.g. ~/.bashrc). Your next shell session will then recognize tab completion for the command. Or, you can also directly execute the line above in your shell to activate immediately.

It is recommended, however, that you install modules using cpanm-shcompgen which can activate shell completion for scripts immediately.

tcsh

To activate tcsh completion for this script, put:

 complete depak 'p/*/`depak`/'

in your tcsh startup (e.g. ~/.tcshrc). Your next shell session will then recognize tab completion for the command. Or, you can also directly execute the line above in your shell to activate immediately.

It is also recommended to install shcompgen (see above).

other shells

For fish and zsh, install shcompgen as described above.

CONFIGURATION FILE

This script can read configuration files. Configuration files are in the format of IOD, which is basically INI with some extra features.

By default, these names are searched for configuration filenames (can be changed using --config-path): ~/.config/depak.conf, ~/depak.conf, or /etc/depak.conf.

All found files will be read and merged.

To disable searching for configuration files, pass --no-config.

You can put multiple profiles in a single file by using section names like [profile=SOMENAME] or [SOMESECTION profile=SOMENAME]. Those sections will only be read if you specify the matching --config-profile SOMENAME.

You can also put configuration for multiple programs inside a single file, and use filter program=NAME in section names, e.g. [program=NAME ...] or [SOMESECTION program=NAME]. The section will then only be used when the reading program matches.

Finally, you can filter a section by environment variable using the filter env=CONDITION in section names. For example if you only want a section to be read if a certain environment variable is true: [env=SOMEVAR ...] or [SOMESECTION env=SOMEVAR ...]. If you only want a section to be read when the value of an environment variable has value equals something: [env=HOSTNAME=blink ...] or [SOMESECTION env=HOSTNAME=blink ...]. If you only want a section to be read when the value of an environment variable does not equal something: [env=HOSTNAME!=blink ...] or [SOMESECTION env=HOSTNAME!=blink ...]. If you only want a section to be read when an environment variable contains something: [env=HOSTNAME*=server ...] or [SOMESECTION env=HOSTNAME*=server ...]. Note that currently due to simplistic parsing, there must not be any whitespace in the value being compared because it marks the beginning of a new section filter or section name.

List of available configuration parameters:

 allow_xs (see --allow-xs)
 args (see --arg)
 debug_keep_tempdir (see --debug-keep-tempdir)
 exclude_core (see --include-core)
 exclude_dist (see --exclude-dist)
 exclude_list (see --exclude-list)
 exclude_module (see --exclude-module)
 exclude_pattern (see --exclude-pattern)
 exclude_prereq (see --exclude-prereq)
 format (see --format)
 include_dir (see --include-dir)
 include_dist (see --include-dist)
 include_list (see --include-list)
 include_module (see --include-module)
 include_prereq (see --include-prereq)
 input_file (see --input-file)
 log_level (see --log-level)
 multiple_runs (see --multiple-runs)
 naked_res (see --naked-res)
 output_file (see --output-file)
 overwrite (see --overwrite)
 pack_method (see --pack-method)
 perl_version (see --perl-version)
 put_hook_at_the_end (see --put-hook-at-the-end)
 shebang (see --shebang)
 skip_not_found (see --skip-not-found)
 squish (see --squish)
 strip (see --strip)
 stripper (see --stripper)
 stripper_comment (see --no-stripper-comment)
 stripper_log (see --stripper-log)
 stripper_maintain_linum (see --stripper-maintain-linum)
 stripper_pod (see --no-stripper-pod)
 stripper_ws (see --no-stripper-ws)
 test (see --test)
 test_cases (see --test-cases)
 trace_extra_opts (see --trace-extra-opts)
 trace_method (see --trace-method)
 use (see --use)

Profiles are also automatically matched to the name of the script being processed, if not specified. For example:

 [profile=parse-id-phone]
 trace_method=require
 #overwrite=1
 include=Parse::PhoneNumber::ID
 include=Perinci::CmdLine::Lite
 include=Data::Check::Structure
 include=Text::Table::Tiny

which will automatically be used when you depak a script named parse-id-phone.

ENVIRONMENT

DEPAK_OPT => str

Specify additional command-line options.

DEBUG_KEEP_TEMPDIR => bool

Set default for debug_keep_tempdir option.

FILES

~/.config/depak.conf

~/depak.conf

/etc/depak.conf

HOMEPAGE

Please visit the project's homepage at https://metacpan.org/release/App-depak.

SOURCE

Source repository is at https://github.com/perlancar/perl-App-depak.

BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=App-depak

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.

SEE ALSO

App::FatPacker, Module::FatPack, App::FatPackUtils

Module::DataPack, App::DataPackUtils

For producing free-standing Perl scripts/applications, there are other alternatives like PAR::Packer (can also pack XS modules and compress the included files in a special archive, but with higher startup time and temporary directory to extract stuffs), App::staticperl (packs perl, core modules, and your modules/scripts in a single static binary).

AUTHOR

perlancar <perlancar@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 by perlancar@cpan.org.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.