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Author image Andrew Maltsev


Spreadsheet::Write - Writer for spreadsheet files (CSV, XLS, XLSX, ...)


Basic usage:

    use Spreadsheet::Write;

    my $sp=Spreadsheet::Write->new(file => 'test.xlsx');



More possibilities:

    use Spreadsheet::Write;

    my $sp=Spreadsheet::Write->new(
        file    => $ARGV[0],        # eg. test.xls, test.xlsx, or test.csv
        sheet   => 'Test Data',
        styles  => {
            money   => {
                format      => '$#,##0.00;-$#,##0.00',
            bright  => {
                font_weight => 'bold',
                font_color  => 'blue',
                font_style  => 'italic',

        { content => [ 'col2', 'col3', 'col4' ], style => 'bright' },
        { content => 'col5', bg_color => 'gray' },


        { content => [ 1, 1.23, 123.45, -234.56 ], style => 'money' },

    my @data=(
        [ qw(1 2 3 4) ],
        [ qw(a s d f) ],
        [ qw(z x c v b) ],
        # ...

    foreach my $row (@data) {
        $sp->addrow({ style => 'ntext', content => $row });



Spreadsheet::Write writes files in CSV, XLS (Microsoft Excel 97), XLSX (Microsoft Excel 2007), and other formats if their drivers exist. It is especially suitable for building various dumps and reports where rows are built in sequence, one after another.

The same calling format and options can be used with any output file format. Unsupported options are ignored where possible allowing for easy run-time selection of the output format by file name.


new ()

    $spreadsheet = Spreadsheet::Write->new(
        file            => 'table.xls',
        styles          => {
            mynumber        => '#,##0.00',

Creates a new spreadsheet object. It takes a list of options. The following are valid:

    file        filename of the new spreadsheet or an IO handle (mandatory)
    encoding    encoding of output file (optional, csv format only)
    format      format of spreadsheet - 'csv', 'xls', 'xlsx', or 'auto' (default)
    sheet       Sheet name (optional, not supported by some formats)
    styles      Defines cell formatting shortcuts (optional)

If file format is 'auto' (or omitted), the format is guessed from the filename extention. If impossible to guess the format defaults to 'csv'.

An IO-like handle can be given as 'file' argument (IO::File, IO::Scalar, etc). In this case the format argument is mandatory.

Default styles are: header => { font_weight => 'bold', type => 'string', }, ntext => { format => '@', type => 'string', }, money => { format => '$#,##0.00;-$#,##0.00', },


Adds a row into the spreadsheet. Takes arbitrary number of arguments. Arguments represent cell values and may be strings or hash references. If an argument is a hash reference, it takes the following structure:

    content         value to put into the cell
    style           formatting style, as defined in new(), scalar or array-ref
    type            type of the content (defaults to 'auto')
    format          number format (see Spreadsheet::WriteExcel for details)
    font_weight     weight of font. Only valid value is 'bold'
    font_style      style of font. Only valid value is 'italic'
    font_decoration 'underline' or 'strikeout' (or both, space separated)
    font_face       font of column; default is 'Arial'
    font_color      color of font (see Spreadsheet::WriteExcel for color values)
    font_size       size of font
    bg_color        color of background (see Spreadsheet::WriteExcel for color values)
    align           alignment
    valign          vertical alignment
    width           column width, excel units (only makes sense once per column)
    height          row height, excel units (only makes sense once per row)
    comment         hidden comment for the cell, where supported

Styles can be used to assign default values for any of these formatting parameters thus allowing easy global changes. Other parameters specified override style definitions.


    my $sp=Spreadsheet::Write->new(
        file        => 'employees.xlsx',
        styles      => {
            header => { font_weight => 'bold' },
        { content => 'First Name', font_weight => 'bold' },
        { content => 'Last Name', font_weight => 'bold' },
        { content => 'Age', style => 'header' },

Note that in this example all header cells will have identical formatting even though some use direct formats and one uses style.

If you want to store text that looks like a number you might want to use { type => 'string', format => '@' } arguments. By default the type detection is automatic, as done by for instance Spreadsheet::WriteExcel write() method.

It is also possible to supply an array reference in the 'content' parameter of the extended format. It means to use the same formatting for as many cells as there are elements in this array. Useful for creating header rows. For instance, the above example can be rewritten as:

        { style => 'header',
          content => [ 'First Name','Last Name','Age' ],

Not all styling options are supported in all formats. Where they are not supported they are safely ignored.


Shortcut for adding multiple rows.

Each argument is an arrayref representing a row.

Any argument that is not a reference (i.e. a scalar) is taken to be the title of a new worksheet.


Adds a new sheet into the document and makes it active. Subsequent addrow() calls will add rows to that new sheet.

For CSV format this call is NOT ignored, but produces a fatal error currently.

freeze($row, $col, $top_row, $left_col))

Sets a freeze-pane at the given position, equivalent to Spreadsheet::WriteExcel->freeze_panes(). Ignored for CSV files.

close ()

Finalizes the spreadsheet and closes the file. It is a good idea to call this method explicitly instead of relying on perl's garbage collector because for many formats the file may be in an unusable state until this method is called.

Once a spreadsheet is closed, calls to addrow() will fail.


This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.


Written by Nick Eremeev <nick.eremeev@gmail.com>; Andrew Maltsev <am@ejelta.com>; https://ejelta.com/

Multiple backends implementation and other patches by Toby Inkster <tobyink@cpan.org> (see also a full fork at Spreadsheet::Wright).