NAME

Math::NV - compare the NV values that perl assigns with C and MPFR

DESCRIPTION

   use Math::NV qw(:all);
   $bool = is_eq('1e-298');
   $bool = is_eq_mpfr('1e-298'); # iff Math::MPFR is available

    If $bool is true, this suggests there is quite possibly no bug
    in the assignment of the specified value.
    If $bool is false, this implies that at least one of perl && C
    (wrt is_eq) or mpfr (wrt is_eq_mpfr) suffer a bug in assigning
    the specified value.
    IME, it's perl that's usually wrong - though I've struck buggy
    assignments with C.
    I've not yet found a case where mpfr assigns incorrectly - and
    I firmly expect that I won't ever find such a bug with that
    library.

    All mpfr values are assigned with a rounding mode of "to nearest,
    ties to even". (This could be made configurable if requested.)

FUNCTIONS

   $bool = is_eq($str);

     Returns true if the value perl assigns to an NV from the string
     $str is equal to the value C assigns to the C type specified by
     $Config{nvtype} from the same string.
     Else returns false - which implies that either perl or C is buggy
     in its assignment of that value. (Or they could both be buggy.)

     When is_eq() returns false, the 2 differing values are by
     default printed to STDOUT (in hex). To disable this behaviour
     set $Math::NV::no_warn to 2.

   $ternary = is_inexact($str); # requires mpfr-3.1.6
     If $ternary is 0, then the value specified by $str is exactly
     representable by an NV.
     If $ternary is less than 0, then the value specified by $str
     is not exactly representable by an NV, and the nearest NV (ties
     to even) is less than the value that the string specifies.
     If $ternary is greater than 0, then the value specified by $str
     is not exactly representable by an NV, and the nearest NV (ties
     to even) is greater than the value that the string specifies.

   $bool = is_eq_mpfr($str);

     Returns true if the value perl assigns from the string $str is
     equal to the value mpfr assigns from the same string. If the
     string represents a subnormal value then the mpfr value is
     subnormalised before the comparison is made.

     When is_eq_mpfr() returns false, the 2 differing values are by
     default printed to STDOUT (in hex). To disable this behaviour
     set $Math::NV::no_warn to 2.


   $nv = nv($str);        # scalar context
   ($nv, $iv) = nv($str); # list context

    On perls whose NV is a C "double", assigns to $nv the value that
    the C standard library function strtod($str) assigns.
    On perls whose NV is a C "long double", assigns to $nv the value
    that the C standard library function strtold($str) assigns.
    On perls whose NV is a C "__float128", assigns to $nv the value
    that the C standard library function strtofloat128($str) assigns.
    In list context, also returns the number of characters that were
    unparsed (ignored).
    Generally you'll want $str to be a string - eg the string "2.3",
    rather than the NV 2.3. Failure to adhere to this will result in
    a warning - though you can disable this warning by setting
    $Math::NV::no_warn to 1.

   $nv = set_C($str);
    Uses the standard C library's strtod() or strtold() or strtoflt128(),
    depending upon which of those three is correct for perl's floating
    point type.
    Expect the returned value to be the same as that returned by nv().

   $nv = set_mpfr($str);
    Uses Math::MPFR to assign the value specified by $str to the NV $nv.
    Rounding is to nearest, ties to even.
    If the string represents a subnormal value, then the value held by
    the Math::MPFR object is subnormalized before being returned in $nv.

   $hex = nv_mpfr($str, [$bits]); # Returns a hex dump of the NV,
                                  # not the actual NV.

    Again, values will be subnormalized if appropriate.
    If $bits is not specified, it will be set to the value returned by
    mant_dig() - which is the appropriate value for the current perl
    that is being run.
    Valid values for $bits are 53 (double), 64 (80-bit extended
    precision long double), 113 (128-bit quad long double or __float128).
    To signify the double-double type, set $bits to either 106 or 2098.
    (While the double-double has only 106 mantissa bits, it can
    encapsulate precisions up to 2098 bits for some values. It makes no
    difference whether you specify 106 or 2098 - just go with the number
    you consider to be the more appropriate or easiest to memorise.)
    Any values other than 53, 64, 106, 113, or 2098 will cause an error.

    Uses the mpfr library to assign the value represented by $str as a
    double or long double or double-double or __float128 (as determined
    by the value of $bits). It then returns a hex dump of the bytes that
    make up that C data type.

    For example, nv_mpfr('1e+127', 53) returns 5a4d8ba7f519c84f.
    This is the same as will be returned by
    scalar(reverse(unpack("h*", pack("d<", 1e+127))))
    if the assignment of 1e+127 to a double has been done correctly.

    For the double-double, the returned scalar is a reference to a list
    that contains 2 elements - the hex dump of the most significant
    double, and the hex dump of the least siginificant double.
    For all other types, the returned scalar contains the hex dump
    of the given value.
    The enticement to use this function in preference to nv()/set_C is
    twofold:
    1) mpfr reliably sets floating point values correctly (whereas C is
       more likely to suffer bugs);
    2) nv_mpfr() can provide hex dumps for any of the four data types
       (double, long double, double-double and __float128), whereas nv()
       returns only the value for whichever data type is specified by
       $Config{nvtype}.

    Note, however, that for nv_mpfr() to return the hex form of the
    __float128 type, the mpfr library (as used by Math::MPFR) needs to have
    been built using the configure option --enable-float128, and this
    configure option is only available with mpfr-4.0.0 or later - and is
    not available for all architectures.

    As is the case with nv(), you'll generally want $str to be a string.
    For example, specify the string "2.3", rather than the NV 2.3.
    Failure to adhere to this will result in a warning - though you can
    disable this warning by setting $Math::NV::no_warn to 1.

   $nv_type = nv_type();

    Returns "double", "long double", or "__float128" depending upon
    the way perl has been configured.
    The expectation is that it returns the same as $Config{nvtype}.
    (Please file a bug report if you find otherwise.)

   $digits = mant_dig();

    Returns the number of bits the NV mantissa contains. This is
    normally 53 if nv_type() is double. For nv_type() of 'long double'
    it can be either 64 (extended precision long double), 113 (quad
    long double) or 106 (IBM double-double).
    For nv_type() of '__float128', mant_dig() will return 113.
    This function returns no other than one of those 4 values.
    IOW, expect mant_dig() to return the value of the float.h macro
    DBL_MANT_DIG, LDBL_MANT_DIG, or FLT128_MANT_DIG depending upon
    whichever is appropriate for perl's configuration.

   ($mantissa, $exponent, $precision) = ld2binary($nv);

    Uses code taken from tests/tset_ld.c in the mpfr library source
    and returns a base 2 representation of the value contained in the
    NV $nv - irrespective of whether the NV type ($Config{nvtype}) is
    double, long double or __float128.
    $mantissa is the mantissa (significand).
    $exponent is the exponent.
    $precision is the precision (in bits) of the mantissa - trailing
    zero bits are not counted. For example:

      @x = ld2binary(2 ** 45);
      will, upon investigation of the contents of @x, reveal that the
      mantissa is 0.1, the exponent is 46, and the precision is 1.


   ($mantissa, $exponent, $precision) = ld_str2binary($str);

    As for ld2binary, except that the argument is a string, not an NV:

      @x = ld_str2binary('35184372088832');
           produces same result as doing:
      @x = ld2binary(2 ** 45);

   $nv = bin2val($mantissa, $exponent, $precision);

    Takes the return values of ld_str2binary() or ld2binary() and
    returns the original NV. (Doesn't work if the original NV is an inf
    or a nan.)

   Cprintf($fmt, $nv);
    Uses C's printf() function to format the NV $nv, according to the
    formatting specified by the string $fmt.

   $string = Csprintf($fmt, $nv, $buffer_size);
    Uses C's sprintf() function to format the NV $nv, according to the
    formatting specified by the string $fmt - and returns the result to
    $string. It's the responsibility of the caller to ensure that
    $buffer_size specifies a large enough number of characters to
    accommodate C's sprintf formatting of $nv.

PACKAGE VARIABLES

   $Math::NV::no_warn

    Initially set to 0 - which means that if either nv(), nv_mpfr(),
    is_eq() or is_eq_mpfr() are handed an argument that is not a string,
    then a warning will be emitted.
    To disable this warning, simply set this variable to 1.
    Set to 2 to disable output of the 2 non-matching values when is_eq()
    or is_eq_mpfr() return false.
    Set to 3 to disable both of the above warnings.

LICENSE

   This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify
   it under the same terms as Perl itself.
   Copyright 2013-16, 2018-20 Sisyphus

AUTHOR

   Sisyphus <sisyphus at(@) cpan dot (.) org>