Author image Sullivan Beck
and 1 contributors


Data::Checker - a framework for checking data validity


   use Data::Checker;

   $obj = new Data::Checker;


A commonly performed task is to have a set of data that you want to validate. Given a set of elements, you want to test each to make sure that it is valid, and then break the set into two groups: the group that is valid, and the group that is not. With the group that is not valid, you usually want an error message associated with that element so you can see why it is not valid.

Although this is an extremely common task, there isn't a convenient framework for expressing these tests in, which means that every time you want to do this kind of testing, you not only have to write the functions for doing the tests, you also have to write the entire framework as well.

This module was written to provide the framework around the tests. A number of common test functions are provided, or you can write your own, and the framework will take care of the rest.

The framework includes the following commonly desired functionality:

Automatic handling of the testing

A list of elements is passed in to the framework, and it will automatically apply the tests and split the elements into sets of passing and failing elements.

Running tests in parallel

Many times, testing a piece of data may take a significant amount of time, and running them in parallel can greatly speed up the process.

This framework allows you to run any number of the tests in parallel, or you can run them serially one at a time.

Support for warnings and information messages

Sometimes you want some tests to produce warnings or just informational messages for an element, but to still consider them as having passed the test.

The level for each test can be specified so that a failure produces an informational notice, a warning, or an error. Only an error means that the element fails the test.


   $obj = new Data::Checker;

This creates a new data check framework.

   $vers = $obj->version;

This returns the version of this module.


In many cases, tests can be run in parallel to speed things up. By default, all tests will be run serially (one at a time) but that behavior can be changed using this method. $n must be a positive integer (or zero):

   $n=1  All tests are run serially. This is the default.

   $n>1  $n tests will run at a time.  If there are more
         elements than this, one will have to finish before
         another will start.

   $n=0  All of the elements will be tested at the same time.
   ($pass,$fail,$warn,$info) = $obj->check($data,$check,$check_opts);

This is the function which actually performs the checks. It takes a set of elements ($data) and verifies them using the checks specified by $check and $check_opts. It returns a list of elements that pass the check and a list that fail the check. In addition, informational notes and warnings about the elements may also be returned.

The data is passed in as a single data structure ($data) as described below in the "SPECIFYING DATA" section.

$check specifies what function to use to perform a check. It will be used to test an individual element to determine whether it passes or fails a check. This is described below in the "CHECK FUNCTION" section.

$check_opts is a hashref that contains options specifying exactly how the check is to be performed, and it will be passed to the check function. This is described more fully below in the "CHECK OPTIONS" section.


Data is passed in to the check method in one of two forms.

The simplest form is a listref. For example:

   $data = [ 'cow', 'horse', 'zebra', 'oak' ]

Many tests do not require any more than this. For these, elements that pass are returned also as a listref. Order is NOT preserved in the output ($pass and $fail).

Some tests however rely on a description of each element, and for these, the data is passed in as a hashref where each key is one data element and the value is a description of the elements (which will typically be a hashref, but might be a scalar, a listref, or some other type of description, and will be documented with the function doing the check).

For example:

   $data = { 'apple'  => { 'type'  => 'fruit',
                           'color' => 'red' },
             'pear'   => { 'type'  => 'fruit',
                           'color' => 'yellow' },
             'bean'   => { 'type'  => 'vegetable',
                           'color' => 'green' }

As mentioned, the exact form of the description will be documented with the function that is used to do the checks.

When data is passed in as a hashref, the list of elements that pass is also a hashref with the description fully preserved.


All checks are performed by a function which takes a single element and tests it to see if it passes. It may perform only a single check on an element, or multiple checks.

All check functions take the same set of arguments, and all return the same set of values.

The $check argument in the check method provides a pointer to where the check function can be found.

$check can be a coderef, in which case you are passing the check function in directly. Alternately, $check can be a string naming the check function, or the namespace where it is found.

If $check is a string, the Data::Checker framework will look for a check function based on that string. As an example, if $check is Foo::Bar, the following locations will be examined to see if they are a function:


where CALLER is the package of the calling routine. The first one which refers to a function will be used. The appropriate module will be loaded as necessary.

A check function is always called as follows:

   ($element,$err,$warn,$info) =

The arguments to the check function are:


$obj is the Data::Checker object that was created, and is passed in to provide the check function some useful methods provided by the framework. These functions are described below in the "CHECK FUNCTION METHODS"

$element, $description

$element is the element being tested, and $description is the description of that element.

If the list of elements was specified as a listref, $element will be one value from that listref and $description will be undef.

If the list of elements was specified as a hashref, $element will be one of the keys from that hashref and $description will be the value of that key.


$check_opts is the hashref that was passed in to the check method and is described in the "CHECK OPTIONS" section.

The check function always returns the following values:


This is the element that was passed in as an argument. It must be returned so that when parallel testing is done, the parent can easily determine which element was being checked by a finished thread.


This is a listref of error messages. If this is undefined or empty, then the element passed the test.

$info, $warn

These are listrefs of informational messages and warnings about this element. These are optional.


Options may be passed in to the check function as a hashref. The form of the hashref (what keys/values are allowed) is documented with the check function, but the general form is:

   $check_opts = { GLOBAL_OPT_1 => GLOBAL_VAL_1,
                   GLOBAL_OPT_2 => GLOBAL_VAL_2, ...

                   CHECK_A      => { OPT_A1 => VAL_A1,
                                     OPT_A2 => VAL_A2, ... }
                   CHECK_B      => { OPT_A1 => VAL_A1,
                                     OPT_A2 => VAL_A2, ... }
                   ... }

There are two types of keys in $check_opts: ones which sets global options (which apply to all possible checks that could be done), and ones which define exactly what types of checks are performed and options that apply only to that check.

All check specific options will override a global option.

The following options are standard:

level => err, warn, info

The level option (which defaults to 'err') can be set to 'warn' or 'info'. If it is, then any element which fails this check will produce the appropriate type of message. It will only result in a failure if it is set to 'err'.

negate => 1

The negate option can be set to negate the test (i.e. what would have been deemed a success it actually a failure and vice versa.

message => [ STRING, STRING, ... ]

The message to return if a check fails. The string __ELEMENT__ will be replaced by the element being checked.

For example, doing DNS checks, you might want to specify exactly what server to use, and you might want to check that a host is defined in DNS (and produce an error if it is not), and warn if it does not have a unique IP. This might be done by passing in:

   $check_opts = { 'nameservers'  => 'my.dns.server',
                   'dns'          => undef,
                   'unique'       => { 'level' => 'warn' } }


In addition to the base methods listed above, the Data::Checker object also includes the following methods which are intended to be called inside a check function.

   $flag = $obj->check_performed($check_opts,$label);

This checks $check_opts for the existance of a key named $label indicating that that check should be performed.

   $level = $obj->check_level($check_opts [,$label]);

Check to see what level ('err', 'info', or 'warn') the check is. If a check is 'err' level, then if it fails, it produces an error. If it is 'warn' level, it produces a warning, but the check is marked as a passing. If it is 'info', then if the check fails, it produces an informational message, but the check is marked as passing.

   $val = $obj->check_option($check_opts,$opt [,$default [,$label]]);

This returns the value of the given option ($opt) for this check ($label).

If the option is not found, $default is returned (if it is given).


This produces a message indicating that the check failed and stores it in the appropriate listref.

If the 'message' option is available, that message is used. Otherwise, $default_message will be used.

The message can be a string or a listref (a multi-line message). The string __ELEMENT__ will be replaced by the element being tested.


This will test to see if a check passed or failed. It takes a value ($value) and if it evaluates to true, then by default the check passes (unless the 'negate' option is present in which case it fails).

The $std_fail is a message (either a string or a listref of strings) that will be given when the check fails and the 'negate' option is not set. $negate_fail is a similar message that will be given when the check fails but the 'negate' option is set.

$err, $warn, and $info are listrefs containing the messages.

If $err is non-empty, an error has occurred.

If the $negate_fail empty is empty, the 'negate' option will be ignored. This is typically used to test an element to see if it is the right type of data for this check. If it isn't, other types of checks are typically not able to run.

If $label is empty, the test is always performed.


None known.



Predefined DNS checks.


Predefined checks to see if a host reponds to pings.


Predefined checks to see if an element is a valid IP.


This script is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.


Sullivan Beck (